How to better adapt the hottest agricultural mecha

2022-08-08
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How can agricultural mechanization better adapt to the new situation of agricultural development?

Abstract: "the 13th five year plan" is a critical period for the transformation of China's traditional agriculture to modern agriculture, and it is also an opportunity period for the accelerated development of agricultural mechanization. To adapt to the new situation of agricultural development and the new expectations of modern people for life. Focus on the short board link, increase the pace of supply side structural reform of agricultural mechanization, effectively improve medium and high-end whole industry chain equipment, cultivate high-quality agricultural machinery management talents, and accurately provide agricultural machinery supply, social services and public services, so as to continuously improve the development quality of agricultural mechanization

After years of efforts, China's agriculture has developed to a new stage. At the same time, China's agricultural development has also encountered some new challenges, such as environmental pressure, increased pressure on resources, weak competitiveness of agricultural products and so on. One of the more prominent problems is the shortage of agricultural labor. With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, a large number of rural labor transferred to the secondary and tertiary industries. According to statistics, the net outflow of labor in the primary industry in the past decade has been about 100million, with an average of about 10million every year. Although this speed will slow down in the future, the outflow of millions of labor from rural areas will continue every year

in recent years, regional, seasonal and structural labor shortages have often occurred in agricultural production, resulting in two problems of "one high and one low". One is the high labor cost. According to the statistics of relevant departments, in the production cost of agricultural products in China, the labor cost accounts for 50% on average, while the developed countries such as the United States account for only about 10%, so there is a big gap between our country and the developed countries. The other is the low willingness of farmers to work in agriculture. Previously, Han Changfu, Minister of agriculture, put forward a view in an interview with the media that farmers may become a hot job in the future. There are two prerequisites for achieving this goal: first, farmers' income will increase, and second, agricultural labor will be more decent. So who will farm? How to farm? This is an urgent problem that we need to consider and solve in the future

it is an effective way to rely on various national subsidy policies to stimulate farmers' enthusiasm, but now, these policies also have a decline or diminishing marginal effect. Facing the double squeeze of the "floor" of agricultural production costs and the "ceiling" of prices, the traditional planting mode of competing resources and inputs has been unsustainable, and there is an urgent need to change the mode of agricultural production

in the process of the transformation of agricultural production mode, agricultural mechanized production will become increasingly important. The degree of mechanization will directly affect the cost of agricultural production and farmers' planting willingness, affect the wide application of advanced agricultural science and technology, and affect the reduced use of agricultural inputs. Therefore, agricultural mechanization is related to the adjustment of the whole agricultural structure, the extension of the industrial chain, and the improvement of the market competitiveness of China's agricultural products

during the 12th Five Year Plan period, China's agricultural machinery equipment level, operation level, scientific and technological level and socialized service level have all experienced unprecedented rapid improvement. According to statistics, in 2016, the total power of agricultural machinery in China reached 1.14 billion kw, and the comprehensive mechanization level of agricultural cultivation and harvest in China reached 65%, especially in the weak links of mechanized production of crops such as corn harvest and rice planting. The total output value of agricultural machinery industry has exceeded 420billion yuan, ranking first in agricultural machinery manufacturing

however, compared with the requirements of modern agricultural development, the contradiction of insufficient effective supply of agricultural mechanization equipment, technology, talents, policies and services in China has become increasingly prominent, and many links are still characterized by low-level and extensive development. It is concentrated in two aspects:

first, from the perspective of products, the effective supply of key agricultural machinery and equipment is insufficient compared with go. At present, although China has become the world's largest agricultural machinery manufacturer that drives other industries to create a market range of $7 trillion, it is large but not strong. It is mainly manifested in the surplus of low-end products and the shortage of high-end products; The machinery of grain crops is surplus, and the machinery products of breeding industry are insufficient; There are many farming machinery products and insufficient harvesting machinery; There are many mechanical products suitable for plains, and the mechanical products suitable for hilly and mountainous areas are seriously insufficient; Many high-end agricultural machinery products and key components rely on imports. It is understood that there are more than 7000 kinds of agricultural machinery in the United States, covering almost all fields of agricultural production, while there are only 3500 kinds in China at present, and most products are still "cheap, usable and perishable". High end products such as high-performance paddy rice transplanters, large-scale cotton pickers and precision machines and tools are basically occupied by foreign brands

second, technically, the effective supply of the integrated supporting technology system of the whole process mechanization is insufficient. Promoting agricultural mechanization involves many aspects, such as machinery R & D and manufacturing, land environment, variety breeding, cultivation (breeding) methods, processing methods, production and operation organization methods, and requires the integration of technical systems. At present, due to the limitations of the system and the level of understanding, China's agricultural technology is isolated from each other to some extent, and there is still the separation of agricultural machinery and Agronomy in some places. For example, in some provinces in the south, the competent agricultural departments promote seedling throwing technology, and the competent agricultural machinery departments promote mechanized seedling transplanting technology, which does not form a joint force. At the same time, the cultivation of crop varieties suitable for mechanized production and the standardization of planting system have not been paid attention to, the varieties are too high-yield, the maturity of crops is inconsistent, and the cultivation methods are not unified. To sum up, the reserve and research and development of agricultural mechanization technology in China are not enough. There are many single agricultural mechanization technologies, and the research on integrated supporting and system solutions has just started. In addition, the socialized service of agricultural machinery, the public service of agricultural machinery and the training system of agricultural machinery talents have not been formed, which can not meet the development needs of modern agriculture

the 13th five year plan is a critical period for the transformation of China's traditional agriculture to modern agriculture, and it is also an opportunity period for the accelerated development of agricultural mechanization. Our general direction is to adhere to the goal orientation and problem orientation, so as to adapt to the new situation of agricultural development and the new expectations of modern people for life. Focus on the short board link, increase the pace of supply side structural reform of agricultural mechanization, effectively improve medium and high-end whole industry chain equipment, cultivate high-quality agricultural machinery management talents, and accurately provide agricultural machinery supply, social services and public services, so as to continuously improve the development quality of agricultural mechanization

During the 13th Five Year Plan period, our work should focus on four aspects:

first, we should work hard to strengthen scientific and technological innovation and improve the supply capacity of high-quality agricultural machinery products. The year before last, the state issued made in China 2025. Last year, the Ministry of agriculture, the national development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of industry and information technology jointly issued the action plan for the exhibition of agricultural machinery and equipment development company providing one-year free warranty service for equipment (), which determined the priorities, goals and tasks of agricultural machinery development in the next decade. In the next step, we will focus on the implementation of policies, take the market as the guide and enterprises as the main body, build a platform to assist innovation, increase scientific research investment, and improve R & D capacity and scientific research level. In terms of agricultural machinery subsidy policies, we should also make appropriate adjustments and strengthen support for existing products. Especially this year, we will further expand the pilot subsidy of new agricultural machinery products and effectively promote enterprise product innovation

second, efforts should be made to strengthen the integration of agricultural machinery and agricultural technology and improve the technical system of agricultural mechanization. Focus on strengthening the cooperation and joint research between agricultural machinery departments and management, scientific research and extension institutions, strive to cultivate varieties suitable for mechanized operation, as well as cultivation and management methods suitable for mechanized operation, realize the mutual adaptation of agricultural machinery operation and cultivation mode, and promote the refined management of key production links

- 40 ℃ ~ - 60 ℃ about 0.7 ℃/min

Third, efforts should be made to strengthen the overall planning and cooperation among departments and improve the external conditions for the development of agricultural mechanization. In particular, in combination with the construction of high-standard farmland, we should speed up land renovation and transformation, improve infrastructure construction, and create better operating conditions for the development of agricultural mechanization. At the same time, it is very important for cash crops to improve the processing technology of agricultural products, improve the harvesting standards of agricultural products, and make them more suitable for mechanized harvesting. In particular, the realization of mechanized harvesting of cotton and sugarcane must be transformed in the processing link

fourth, efforts should be made to strengthen policy guidance and promote agricultural mechanization services. It is necessary to further explore the organizational scale, distribution mode, service mode, equipment utilization rate and benefit mechanism of agricultural machinery socialization service, further improve the service modes such as cross region operation, order operation and land circulation, and gradually explore the agricultural machinery socialization service mode suitable for China. Agricultural Mechanization public services also need to further improve supporting policies, including further improving relevant policies such as operation subsidies, technology promotion, maintenance services, safety production, etc. In recent years, we will cooperate with the Department of science and education of the Ministry of agriculture to train 10000 leaders of large agricultural machinery households or Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives every year, with the purpose of creating new farmers for modern agriculture

in general, in the next few years, we will continue to organize and implement the whole process mechanization of major crop production nationwide in accordance with the deployment of the 13th five year development plan outline for national economic and social development and the national plan for modern agriculture () issued by the State Council, and effectively promote the upgrading of China's agricultural mechanization to "whole process, comprehensive, high-quality and efficient", Give full play to the important role of agricultural machinery in saving costs and increasing efficiency and promoting large-scale operation, and play a greater role in promoting the reform of China's agricultural supply side structure

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